The guns were staggered to allow feeding from side-by-side ammunition boxes, each with 350 rounds. ", "1º Grupo de Caça da Força Aérea Brasileira" (Brazilian Air Force 1st Fighter Squadron), List of surviving Republic P-47 Thunderbolts, List of military aircraft of the United States, "Alexander de Seversky, Russian Ace of World War One, Aircraft Designer & Founder of Republic Aviation. Created September 20, 1997. See more ideas about thunderbolt, p 47 thunderbolt, fighter jets. Power came from a Pratt & Whitney R-2800 Double Wasp two-row 18-cylinder radial engine producing 2,000 hp (1,500 kW) — the same engine that would power the prototype Vought XF4U-1 fighter to just over 400 mph (640 km/h) in October 1940—with the Double Wasp on the XP-47B turning a four-bladed Curtiss Electric constant-speed propeller of 146 in (3.7 m) in diameter. [31] In mid-1943, the Soviet high command showed an interest in the P-47B. When his unit (4th Fighter Group) was equipped with Thunderbolts, ace Don Blakeslee said, referring to the P-47's vaunted ability to dive on its prey, "It ought to be able to dive. Lieutenant Colonel Robert Samuel Johnson collaborated with aviation author Martin Caidin to write his autobiographical story of the 56th Fighter Group, Thunderbolt!, in 1958. As the P-47 Thunderbolt worked up to operational status, it gained a nickname: the "Jug" (because its profile was similar to that of a common milk jug of the time). The P-47B entered USAAF service in November 1942, becoming officially operational with the Eighth Air Force stationed in the UK on April 8, 1943. Panzer IV vs Sherman: France 1944 by Steven Zaloga, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 18:41. Spitfires and convert to the new juggernauts. However, the P-51D was available in greater numbers in the USAF and ANG inventories.[25]. Since it was almost twice as heavy as its opponents, it exhibited a poor rate of climb, but had other advantages that more than compensated where it was lacking. More than 400,000 of the 16 million Americans who served in WWII perished during the conflict, and 72,766 remain missing . "Pushing The Envelope With Test Pilot Herb Fisher". Soviet engineers disassembled the third aircraft to examine its construction. A present-day U.S. ground-attack aircraft, the Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II, takes its name from the P-47. However, the P-47B's range was not adequate for escort duties and its maneuverability at low and medium altitude was poor. But German pilots gradually learned to avoid diving away from a Thunderbolt. The XP-47B was very heavy compared with contemporary single-engined fighters, with an empty weight of 9,900 lb (4,500 kg), or 65 per cent more than the YP-43. Less than half reached operational units, and they were rarely used in combat. Kartveli then quickly prepared a rough sketch of a new XP-47B prototype, but it was a daring concept. Test pilot Aleksey N. Grinchik noted the spacious cockpit with good ventilation and a good all-around view. Nevertheless, the stability, payload and high speed were appreciated. This unit flew a total of 445 missions from November 1944 to May 1945 over northern Italy and Central Europe, with 15 P-47s lost to German flak and five pilots being killed in action. Numerous other problems were to be faced in absorbing the loads and stresses which would be imposed when a battery of eight 0.50 caliber guns, (a phenomenal heavy armament for that time) were fired simultaneously, and in France, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, Mexico and Brazil also operated the P-47. With the end of World War II, orders for 5,934 were cancelled. P-47s flew more than 546,000 combat sorties between March 1943 and August 1945, destroying 11,874 enemy aircraft, some 9,000 locomotives and about 6,000 armored vehicles and tanks. [33], After World War II, the Chinese Nationalist Air Force received 102 P-47Ds used during the Chinese Civil War. YF+U is the Ex-358 FS plane. Later was received the code 7+9 while under evaluation at, 85 units 1st Brazilian Fighter Group, 1944–1954. Initial mock dog-fights between Thunderbolts and Nicknamed the "Jug" owing to its appearance if stood on its nose, the P-47 was noted for its firepower, as well as its ability to resist battle damage and remain airworthy. In 1948, the Chinese Nationalists employed 70 P-47Ds and 42 P-47Ns brought to Taiwan in 1952. Laughter and Tears,[74] by Captain George Rarey, a posthumous publication of letters and sketches from a pilot in the 379th Air group flying P-47s based in England. requested by the USAAF. Gradually, we learned how to fight in the Thunderbolt. In total 15,636 were built between 1941 and 1945. [40] The Thunderbolt was the fastest-diving American aircraft of the war—it could reach speeds of 550 mph (480 kn; 890 km/h)[citation needed]. The turbosupercharger in the P-47 gave the powerplant its maximum power at 27,000 ft (8,200 m) and, in the thin air above 30,000 ft (9,100 m), the Thunderbolt remained fast and nimble compared to other aircraft. The P-47 Thunderbolt was the subject of an episode of the World's Deadliest Aircraft series broadcast by the Military Channel. Mexican and Brazilian squadrons fighting alongside the USAAF also flew the P-47. Masefield, Peter. The North American P-51 Mustang was used by the USAF, mainly in the close air support role. Lake, Jon. [18] Lieutenant Colonel Francis S. Gabreski scored 28 victories,[19] Captain Robert S. Johnson scored 27 (with one unconfirmed probable kill leading to some giving his tally as 28),[20] and 56th FG Commanding Officer Colonel Hubert Zemke scored 17.75 kills. P-47D specs: 430 MPH, eight 50 caliber machine guns. In 791 sorties against Japanese forces, the 201st lost no pilots or aircraft to enemy action.[29]. We were horrified at the thought of going to war in such a machine: we had enough trouble with the ", Unbreakable World War II aircraft that were shot to hell—and came back. [10] The armament was eight .50 caliber (12.7 mm) "light-barrel" Browning AN/M2 machine guns, four in each wing. Spitfires seemed to confirm these feelings—we lost four Thunderbolt pilots in rapid succession, spinning in from low level, while trying to match Johnson scored 27 kills in the P-47 while flying with the 56th Fighter Group. The first P-47 air combat took place 15 April with Major Don Blakeslee of the 4th FG scoring the Thunderbolt's first air victory (against a Focke-Wulf Fw 190). A Republic P-47 Thunderbolt (magyarul Villámcsapás) amerikai vadászrepülőgép volt a második világháború során. Initial response to the P-47 praised its dive speed and high-altitude performance while criticizing its turning performance and rate of climb (particularly at low-to-medium altitudes). All rights reserved. In 1939, Republic Aviation designed the AP-4 demonstrator powered by a Pratt & Whitney R-1830 radial engine with a … The P-47 Thunderbolt, nicknamed the Jug, served the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) in World War II with distinction. Most importantly, the P-47 served as an excellent transition platform to heavier jet fighters, including the F-84 Thunderjet, starting in 1953.[30]. "First Analysis of the Thunderbolt. "Aztec Eagle – P-47D of the Mexican Expeditionary Air Force". Although the Thunderbolt was certainly big, making it the largest and heaviest WWII single engined single-seat fighter ever built, its sheer size was not to prove detrimental to the Thunderbolt's subsequent operational career. in our nimble Spitfire Vs—now this lumbering seven-ton The U.S. sent 203 P-47Ds to the Soviet Union. 354 P-47Gs were built by Curtiss in Buffalo and 130 P-47Ms were built with a 2,500 hp engine giving a maximum speed of 473 mph (761 km/h). Roach was imprisoned at Stalag Luft I. The engine exhaust gases were routed into a pair of wastegate-equipped pipes that ran along each side of the cockpit to drive the turbosupercharger turbine at the bottom of the fuselage, about halfway between cockpit and tail. Pilots would often claim that one could fly a P-47 through a brick wall and live. Once the P-47 caught up to its prey, one burst from its eight 0.50 machine guns would obliterate anything it got a bead on. Teljesen feltöltve nehezebb volt, mint a német Do 17 bombázó, így a legnehezebb egymotoros vadászgép volt a háború során. Production plans were shelved in favor of another P-47 development, the Republic XP-72. The latter was a lightweight aircraft powered by the Allison V-1710 liquid-cooled V-12 engine and armed with two .50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns mounted in the nose and four .30 in (7.62 mm) M1919 Browning machine guns mounted in the wings. [78], Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era. The air-conditioned cockpit was roomy and the pilot's seat was comfortable—"like a lounge chair", as one pilot later put it. Some P-47 pilots claimed to have broken the sound barrier, but later research revealed that because of the pressure buildup inside the pitot tube at high speeds, airspeed readings became unpredictably exaggerated. Unlike their Western counterparts, the VVS made little use of the P-47 as a ground attack aircraft, depending instead on their own widely produced—with 36,183 examples built during the war—special-purpose, armored ground-attack aircraft, the Ilyushin Il-2. The first tasks of the Thunderbolt were high-altitude escort duties and fighter sweeps in which the new aircraft acquitted itself well, despite the inexperience of its pilots. [citation needed], P-47s were operated by several Allied air arms during World War II. [32], The Luftwaffe operated at least one captured P-47. [8] The United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) backed the project and gave it the designation XP-47. Beginning in January 1943, Thunderbolt fighters were sent to the joint Army Air Forces – civilian Millville Airport in Millville, New Jersey in order to train civilian and military pilots. In the end our headquarters issued an order banning mock dog fighting in Thunderbolts below 8,000 feet. Even now, thirty years after I flew them on operations, the mere sound or sight of a Spitfire brings me a deep feeling of nostalgia and many pleasant memories. Some fought Castro's rebellion. When fully loaded, the P-47 weighed up to eight tons, making it one of the heaviest fighters of the war. When we strapped into a Spitfire we felt snug and part of the aircraft—the Thunderbolt cockpit, on the other hand, was so large that we felt if we slipped off the goddamned seat we would break a leg! One of the outstanding features of the P-47 was its remarkable acceleration when the aircraft was put into a dive. Since the Mustang was more vulnerable to being shot down, (and many were lost to anti-aircraft fire), some former P-47 pilots suggested the more durable Thunderbolt should have been sent to Korea in the Mustang's place. He was shot down and killed over Wewak in March 1944. With the addition of long-range drop tanks, it proved to be a successful escort fighter for … [32] The fighters were assigned to high-altitude air defense over major cities in rear areas. The Yakovlev Yak-9, Lavochkin La-5FN, Messerschmitt Bf 109G and Focke-Wulf Fw 190A outperformed the early model P-47 at low and medium altitude, where the P-47 had poor acceleration and performed aerobatics rather reluctantly. The P-47 was not deployed to Korea for the Korean War. The P-47 Thunderbolt was designed by Alexander Kartveli, a man of Georgian descent. She was a dream to handle in the air. [16] Although the North American P-51 Mustang replaced the P-47 in the long-range escort role in Europe, the Thunderbolt still ended the war with 3,752 air-to-air kills claimed in over 746,000 sorties of all types, at the cost of 3,499 P-47s to all causes in combat. Small numbers of P-47s were also provided to China, Iran, Turkey and Yugoslavia. Even more important, at last we had a fighter with the range to penetrate deeply into enemy territory—where the action was. The canopy doors hinged upward. This allows the engine to deliver more power as the airplane gains altitude in the thinner air of the upper atmosphere. The final model, the P-47N, had extended wings and an additional 100 US gallons of fuel. Director Lawrence Bond depicted the last months of World War II over Germany as told by four P-47 pilots of the 362nd Fighter Group using original, all color 1945 footage. By mid-1943, improved P-47Cs were becoming available with external fuel tanks to increase range and a longer fuselage to improve maneuverability. The USAAC notified Kartveli that the XP-47A and the XP-44 Rocket contracts were canceled since the P-43/XP-44 airframe was too small to meet the new requirements. All P-47s were refitted with British radios, and missions resumed 8 April. P-47 Thunderbolt er et amerikansk jagerfly, bygget af Republic.. P-47 Thunderbolt er et af de mest kendte og mest robuste amerikanske fly fra 2. verdenskrig, hvor det blev anvendt af US Army Air Forces og RAF som jagerfly og jagerbomber.. P-47 Thunderbolt blev bl.a. The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt is a World War II-era fighter aircraft produced by the Spitfire. Although this propeller was an admirable solution to the power gearing of the engine, the problem remained of providing sufficient ground clearance for its 12-foot (3.66 m) diameter. The 4th Fighter Group's commander hated the P-47, and his prejudices filtered down to the group's pilots; the 4th had the fewest kills of any of the first three P-47 squadrons in Europe.[37]. The XP-47B crashed on August 8, 1942, but not before many problems had been solved.7 Despite the crash, an initial order was placed by the USAAC for 171 P-47Bs and 602 P-47Cs.8. The armored cockpit was relatively roomy and comfortable and the bubble canopy introduced on the P-47D offered good visibility. I feel genuinely sorry for the modern fighter pilot who has never had the chance to get his hands on a Spitfire—he will never know what real flying was like. Though the XP-47B had its share of teething troubles, the newly reorganized United States Army Air Forces placed an order for 171 production aircraft, the first being delivered in December 1941. At the time of the Thunderbolt's European debut, radial-engined single-seat fighters were a rarity, the only other such fighter operational in Europe being the Focke-Wulf Fw 190A. He found it easy to fly and stable upon take-off and landing, but it showed excessive rolling stability and poor directional stability. A contract was awarded on September 6, 19403 for the new XP-47B prototype and the maiden flight was only eight months later on May 6, 1941.4 The new plane dwarfed its pilots and all previous fighters, but it still proved to be an outstanding success. The Planes of Fame monthly event for March 2013, "Little Friends - Bomber Escorts", featured the P-47 Thunderbolt. [42], The P-47 proved to be a formidable fighter-bomber due to its good armament, heavy bomb load and ability to survive enemy fire. It was huge—the wing tip of the P-47 came higher than the cockpit of the Spitfire. The first P-47 combat mission took place 10 March 1943 when the 4th FG took their aircraft on a fighter sweep over France. The conventional three-bladed propeller could not efficiently utilize the power of the new engine, and a four-bladed propeller was adopted. Even with its complicated turbosupercharger system, its sturdy airframe and tough radial engine could absorb a lot of damage and still return home. By mid-1943, the Jug was also in service with the 12th Air Force in Italy[15] and against the Japanese in the Pacific, with the 348th Fighter Group flying missions out of Port Moresby, New Guinea. The unit claimed 677.5 air victories and 311 ground kills, at the cost of 128 aircraft. Laughlin, of the 362nd Fighter Group, smokes a cigar with his dog mascot “Prince” inside the cockpit of his P-47D serial 44-33287 “Five By Five” (coded B8-A) A two-seat P-47 Thunderbolt nicknamed “Astra” of the 365th Fighter Group. [Note 4] Two Fighter Groups already stationed in England began introducing the Jugs in January 1943: the Spitfire-flying 4th Fighter Group, a unit built around a core of experienced American pilots who had flown in the RAF Eagle Squadrons prior to the US entry in the war; and the 78th Fighter Group, formerly flying P-38 Lightnings. The P-47 Thunderbolt, nicknamed the Jug, served the United States Army Air Corps (USAAF) in World War II, and 15,636 were built between 1941 and 1945. P-47 pilots frequently carried two 500 lb (230 kg) bombs, using skip bombing techniques for difficult targets (skipping bombs into railroad tunnels to destroy hidden enemy trains was a favorite tactic). The loss of the AP-4 prototype to an engine fire ended Kartveli's experiments with tight-fitting cowlings, so the engine was placed in a broad cowling that opened at the front in a "horse collar"-shaped ellipse. The P-47N was the last variant of the famed P-47 Thunderbolt to ever be produced. It was developed too late to see much action in Europe and was primarily used in the Pacific theater. P-47D Thunderbolt "Hairless Joe" Camo 1500mm (59") Wingspan - ARF from Nexa - NXA1002-001. The RAF received 240 razorback P-47Ds which they designated "Thunderbolt Mark I", and 590 bubbletop P-47D-25s, designated "Thunderbolt Mark IIs". P-47 Thunderbolt, which were noted for their speed, best escaped by diving hard and pulling back up when the attacker had been shaken.… World War II The principal belligerents were the Axis powers—Germany, Italy, and Japan—and the Allies—France, Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and, to a lesser extent, China. fighter pilots banteringly suggested that their American At high altitude, she was a hot ship and very fast in the dive; the technique was not to mix it with the enemy, but to pounce on him from above, make one quick pass and get back up to altitude; if anyone tried to escape from a Thunderbolt by diving, we had him cold. The Jug … © Larry Dwyer. The men of the 9th fly P.47 Thunderbolt aircraft in anti-tank missions against German forces in Normandy. [35], The P-47 first saw action with the 4th Fighter Group. [11], The XP-47B first flew on 6 May 1941 with Lowry P. Brabham at the controls. Both the Bf 109 and Fw 190 could, like the Spitfire, out-turn and out-climb the early model P-47s at low-to-medium altitude. From D-Day until VE day, Thunderbolt pilots claimed to have destroyed 86,000 railroad cars, 9,000 locomotives, 6,000 armored fighting vehicles, and 68,000 trucks. The large P-47 Thunderbolt turbo-supercharger was stowed internally in the rear fuselage, with a large air intake duct mounted under the engine, together with the engine oil coolers. For other uses, see, Fairchild Republic was the most recent incarnation of the original. It was soon discovered that the heavy Thunderbolt could out-dive any Luftwaffe fighter, or for that matter, any Allied fighter. The war was moving on and we had to move with it. A típust repülő pilóták több becenévvel illették. T9+FK was the second of two P-47s used by 2/Versuchsverband Ob.d.L. The Thunderbolts were armed with three 500 lb (230 kg) bombs or, in some cases, British "60 lb (27 kg)" RP-3 rocket projectiles. The fastest model was the XP-47J, which did not go into production. To prevent confusion between the two fighters of the opposing sides, the engine cowlings of the Thunderbolts were painted white and white bands were painted around the vertical and horizontal tail surfaces—an appropriate comment on recognition standards appertaining at that time, as it would seem impossible to mistake the sleek and beautifully-contoured German fighter for the portly Thunderbolt. ", "The Turbosupercharger and the Airplane Power Plant. (5,262 kg) which was more than twice the weight of its contemporaries such as the. In 2015, it was named the state aircraft of Indiana due to its Evansville roots. However, they were not well liked, as the Italian pilots were used to much lighter aircraft and found the controls too heavy. P-47 Thunderbolt (5) 15min 2010 13+ The Thunderbolt was one of the heaviest (10,000 pounds empty), but one of the fastest (433 mph) planes of WWII, and could climb up to 41,000 feet. [Note 5] Despite being the sole remaining P-47 group in the 8th Air Force, the 56th FG remained its top-scoring group in aerial victories throughout the war. Any plane that attempted to break off contact by going into a dive would soon be overcome by the remarkable speed of the P-47. The P-47 Thunderbolt, nicknamed the Jug, served the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) in World War II with distinction. In the spring of 1940, Republic and the USAAC concluded that the XP-44 and the XP-47 were inferior to Luftwaffe fighters. In the post-war era one Air National Guard Thunderbolt plowed into the second story of a factory, shearing off its wings, with the crumpled fuselage eventually coming to rest inside the building; the pilot walked away alive.[75]. Kurt Bühligen, a high-scoring German fighter ace with 112 victories, recalled: The P-47 was very heavy, too heavy for some maneuvers. Once the Thunderbolts were cleared for use in 1944, they were used against the Japanese in Burma by 16 RAF squadrons of the South East Asia Command from India. The Group's pilots were mainly drawn from the three British Eagle Squadrons who had previously flown the British Spitfire Mark V, a much smaller and much more slender aircraft. So, reluctantly, we had to France, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, Mexico and Brazil also operated the P-47. Colonel J.L. Historians argue that the nickname "Jug" was short for "Juggernaut" when aviators began using the longer word as an alternate nickname. It was able to do everything Kartveli had hoped, and achieved a greater than expected speed of 412 mph (663 kph).5 Numerous problems were encountered during development, such as excessive control loads at high altitude and the canopy could not be opened at altitudes above 30,000 ft. Corrections included: balance panels to reduce rudder loads; blunt nose ailerons; a jettisonable sliding canopy to replace the hinged cockpit door; and all-metal flight controls to replace the fabric covered controls used on the prototype.6 (It was found during testing that the fabric flight controls would balloon out due to changes in atmospheric pressure.) It was lost in an accident on 8 August 1942 but before that mishap, the prototype had achieved a level speed of 412 mph (663 km/h) at 25,800 ft (7,900 m) altitude and had demonstrated a climb from sea level to 15,000 ft (4,600 m) in five minutes.[12]. Other media include Thunderbolt, a 1947 color documentary film directed by John Sturges and William Wyler, featuring James Stewart and Lloyd Bridges and narrated by Robert Lowery. colleagues would be able to take evasive action, when attacked by undoing their harnesses and dodging about the fuselages of their huge mounts. [Note 2] Both had fled from their homeland, Tbilisi, in Georgia to escape the Bolsheviks. The P-47 Thunderbolt was designed by Alexander Kartveli, a man of Georgian descent. They appreciated the high production standards and rational design well-suited to mass production, and the high reliability of the hard-hitting Browning machine guns. Operations with army support (operating as "cab ranks" to be called in when needed), attacks on enemy airfields and lines of communication, and escort sorties. Only 0.7 per cent of the fighters of this type dispatched against the enemy were lost in combat. The initial version of this article was based on a public domain article from Greg Goebel's Vectorsite. Renowned as a hardy and versatile machine, the P-47 could carry up to 2,500 pounds of external ordnance in addition to its eight .50 caliber machine guns. The Cuban Air Force took delivery of 29 ex-USAF airframes and spares. The P-47D-15-RE Thunderbolt on top, was the first version to have underwing pylons to use droppable fuel tanks. • Self-sealing fuel tanks. The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt was the largest, heaviest, and most expensive fighter aircraft in history to be powered by a single piston engine.. [24] The P-47 continued serving with the U.S. Army Air Forces through 1947, the USAAF Strategic Air Command from 1946 through 1947, the active duty United States Air Force until 1949, and with the Air National Guard until 1953, receiving the designation F-47 in 1948. "P-47" (in Italian). In poor weather on 7 November 1943 while flying a P-47D-2-RA on a bomber escort mission, 2nd Lt. William E. Roach of 358th Fighter Squadron, 355th Fighter Group made an emergency landing on a German airfield. brugt som eskorte for de amerikanske bombefly under deres togter over Tyskland, men også til angreb mod jordmål. • Armor plating to protect the pilot. squadron/signal publications - N°1067 - 1984 ISBN 0-89747-161-X The Republic P-47 was the successor of a line of airplanes derived from the Seversky P-35, the XP-41, P-43 Lancer and XP-44 Rocket.The P-47 design team headed by Alexander Kartveli, Republic Aircraft Corporation's chief engineer, originally presented a design that was to be powered by a 1,150 hp Allison V-1710-39 engine with an armament of only two 0.50 caliber inch machine guns. Page 4 illustration of M10 triple-tube launcher, "USAAF at War (1942-45): Audiobook CD on CD41 label. The Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, or "Jug" as it was known, was one of the main US Army Air Force (USAAF) fighters of World War II.The P-47 was a big, rugged, overbuilt aircraft that was effective in air combat but proved particularly useful as a fighter-bomber. "Thunderbolts: The Conquest of the Reich", a 2001 television documentary presented by the History Channel. Before the war was over, a total of 15,579 Thunderbolts were built, about two-thirds of which reached operational squadrons overseas. ", "Republic P-47D-30-RA Thunderbolt (Long Description).". [22] During Operation Cobra, in the vicinity of Roncey, P-47 Thunderbolts of the 405th Fighter group destroyed a German column of 122 tanks, 259 other vehicles, and 11 artillery pieces.[23]. Many were sent to training units. Within seconds their airspeed indicated the equivalent of 725 mph. The P-47's initial success in combat was primarily due to tactics, using rolls (the P-47 had an excellent roll rate) and energy-saving dive and zoom climbs from high altitude to outmaneuver German fighters. These machines were delivered between 1947 and 1950. The Air Corps ordered a prototype in September as the XP-47B.